MiTE2017 has ended
Back To Schedule
Friday, January 13 • 3:10pm - 3:30pm
"Experiences and Challenges of Preservice Teacher Interns Enrolled in a 1 to 1 Teacher Education Program."

Sign up or log in to save this to your schedule, view media, leave feedback and see who's attending!

How is student teaching (interning) changed when you are not enrolled in a teacher education which is one to one with iPads? What unique challenges do students face?
As early as 1996, in the National Educational Technology Plan, the Department of Education has called upon Colleges of Education to improve the experience of future teachers related to technology integration to achieve technology literacy (USDOE, 1996). The current National Educational Technology Plan (USDOE, 2016) takes it a step further when they say that no new teacher should require remediation by their new district to make meaningful use of technology to achieve state or national standards or prepare students to be successful on assessments (USDOE, 2016). Dexter & Reidel (2003) shared the assertion that colleges of education have a responsibility to prepare students to use technology but admit it is difficult to manage. it is not only affected by access to computing technology but also their instructional supports available within the University and educational settings (Dexter & Reidel, 2003)

In order to evaluate this call to action in practice. Student intern teachers (n=51) during the third year of a one to one teacher education iPad program were asked to reflect on their technology use during student teaching. These were the first students who had used iPads throughout their teacher education coursework. Students were asked to complete a survey during their intern teaching day using their iPads or Smartphone. The study used Experience Sampling Method (ESM). ESM is a method where participants are prompted to complete a survey or reflection throughout their day to obtain “just in time” reflection while they are engaged in an activity (Csikszentmihalyi, & Larson 1987). ESM was performed using a combination of Remind.com text messages and a Google Form to capture their experiences on different days and during different times during the day. After completing this surveys, the interns were provided with a printout of their reflections. Then during one class session, they summarized their daily sampled reflections and also participated in a class discussion. Data collected both in online and paper­ based summative reflections was subjected to content analysis and triangulated with classroom discussions. The responses showed that interns tended toward teacher­focused uses of technology and were frustrated by their inability to use technology. They experienced both first and second order barriers (Becker, 1999; Ertmer, 2005). Some of the challenges due to infrastructure included lack of access to WIFI on their college devices, and overall lack of access to school file systems and software (i.e.. not given a GAFE account to be able to collaborate with cooperating teachers or interact with student work or not given access to Smart Notebook software to be able to plan and develop technology enhanced lessons). They also experienced issues with teacher beliefs of their cooperating teachers. These issues ranged from fear of technology or remaining focused on existing curriculum that “worked”. We plan to talk about the follow up to this study that included a meeting with tech leaders at partner schools to ascertain how we could improve access and better allow students to integrate technology and offering PD to both inservice and preservice teachers to improve their technology integration skills.


Becker, H. J. (1999). Internet use by teachers: conditions of professional use and teacher­directed student use. Teaching, Learning and Computer: 1998 National Survey, Retrieved from


Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Larson, R. (1987). Validity and reliability of the experience­sampling method. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 175(9), 526­536.

Dexter,S., & Riedel, E., (2003). Why Improving Preservice Teacher Educational Technology prep ara tion must go beyond the college’s walls. Journal of Teacher Education, 54(4). Doi: 10.1177/0022487103255319

Ertmer, P. A. (2005). Teacher pedagogical beliefs: The final frontier in our quest for technology integration?. Educational Technology Research and Development, 53(4), 25­39.
USDOE (US Department of Education) (1996) National Education Technology Plan. Available at: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED398899.pdf

USDOE (US Department of Education). (2016). Future ready: Reimagining the role of technology in education. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from: http://tech.ed.gov/netp/ 


Kari Hazen

Faculty, CalStateTEACH

avatar for Dr. Theresa Cullen

Dr. Theresa Cullen

Associate Professor, University of Oklahoma
Theresa A. Cullen is an Associate Professor in Instructional Psychology and Technology at the University of Oklahoma where she coordinates the undergraduate technology integration courses and the 1 to 1 iPad program for all undergraduate teacher education students. She was named an... Read More →

Friday January 13, 2017 3:10pm - 3:30pm PST